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30个Python常用小技巧

1、原地交换两个数字

x, y =10, 20

print(x, y)

y, x = x, y

print(x, y)

10 20

20 10

2、链状比较操作符

n = 10

print(1 < n < 20)

print(1 > n <= 9)

True

False

3、使用三元操作符来实现条件赋值

[表达式为真的返回值] if [表达式] else [表达式为假的返回值]

y = 20

x = 9 if (y == 10) else 8

print(x)

8

# 找abc中最小的数

def small(a, b, c):

   return a if a<b and a<c else (b if b<a and b<c else c)

print(small(1, 0, 1))

print(small(1, 2, 2))

print(small(2, 2, 3))

print(small(5, 4, 3))

0

1

3

3

# 列表推导

x = [m**2 if m>10 else m**4 for m in range(50)]

print(x)

[0, 1, 16, 81, 256, 625, 1296, 2401, 4096, 6561, 10000, 121, 144, 169, 196, 225, 256, 289, 324, 361, 400, 441, 484, 529, 576, 625, 676, 729, 784, 841, 900, 961, 1024, 1089, 1156, 1225, 1296, 1369, 1444, 1521, 1600, 1681, 1764, 1849, 1936, 2025, 2116, 2209, 2304, 2401]

4、多行字符串

multistr = "select * from multi_row \

where row_id < 5"

print(multistr)

select * from multi_row where row_id < 5

multistr = """select * from multi_row

where row_id < 5"""

print(multistr)

select * from multi_row

where row_id < 5

multistr = ("select * from multi_row"

"where row_id < 5"

"order by age")

print(multistr)

select * from multi_rowwhere row_id < 5order by age

5、存储列表元素到新的变量

testList = [1, 2, 3]

x, y, z = testList    # 变量个数应该和列表长度严格一致

print(x, y, z)

1 2 3

6、打印引入模块的绝对路径

import threading

import socket

print(threading)

print(socket)

<module 'threading' from 'd:\\python351\\lib\\threading.py'>

<module 'socket' from 'd:\\python351\\lib\\socket.py'>

7、交互环境下的“_”操作符

在python控制台,不论我们测试一个表达式还是调用一个方法,结果都会分配给一个临时变量“_”

8、字典/集合推导

testDic = {i: i * i for i in range(10)}

testSet = {i * 2 for i in range(10)}

print(testDic)

print(testSet)

{0: 0, 1: 1, 2: 4, 3: 9, 4: 16, 5: 25, 6: 36, 7: 49, 8: 64, 9: 81}

{0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18}

9、调试脚本

用pdb模块设置断点

import pdb

pdb.ste_trace()

10、开启文件分享

python允许开启一个HTTP服务器从根目录共享文件

python -m http.server

11、检查python中的对象

test = [1, 3, 5, 7]

print(dir(test))

['__add__', '__class__', '__contains__', '__delattr__', '__delitem__', '__dir__', '__doc__', '__eq__', '__format__', '__ge__', '__getattribute__', '__getitem__', '__gt__', '__hash__', '__iadd__', '__imul__', '__init__', '__iter__', '__le__', '__len__', '__lt__', '__mul__', '__ne__', '__new__', '__reduce__', '__reduce_ex__', '__repr__', '__reversed__', '__rmul__', '__setattr__', '__setitem__', '__sizeof__', '__str__', '__subclasshook__', 'append', 'clear', 'copy', 'count', 'extend', 'index', 'insert', 'pop', 'remove', 'reverse', 'sort']

test = range(10)

print(dir(test))

['__class__', '__contains__', '__delattr__', '__dir__', '__doc__', '__eq__', '__format__', '__ge__', '__getattribute__', '__getitem__', '__gt__', '__hash__', '__init__', '__iter__', '__le__', '__len__', '__lt__', '__ne__', '__new__', '__reduce__', '__reduce_ex__', '__repr__', '__reversed__', '__setattr__', '__sizeof__', '__str__', '__subclasshook__', 'count', 'index', 'start', 'step', 'stop']

12、简化if语句

# use following way to verify multi values

if m in [1, 2, 3, 4]:

# do not use following way

if m==1 or m==2 or m==3 or m==4:

13、运行时检测python版本

import sys

if not hasattr(sys, "hexversion") or sys.version_info != (2, 7):

   print("sorry, you are not running on python 2.7")

   print("current python version:", sys.version)

sorry, you are not running on python 2.7

current python version: 3.5.1 (v3.5.1:37a07cee5969, Dec  6 2015, 01:54:25) [MSC v.1900 64 bit (AMD64)]

14、组合多个字符串

test = ["I", "Like", "Python"]

print(test)

print("".join(test))

['I', 'Like', 'Python']

ILikePython

15、四种翻转字符串、列表的方式

5

3

1

16、用枚举在循环中找到索引

test = [10, 20, 30]

for i, value in enumerate(test):

   print(i, ':', value)

0 : 10

1 : 20

2 : 30

17、定义枚举量

class shapes:

   circle, square, triangle, quadrangle = range(4)

print(shapes.circle)

print(shapes.square)

print(shapes.triangle)

print(shapes.quadrangle)

0

1

2

3

18、从方法中返回多个值

def x():

   return 1, 2, 3, 4

a, b, c, d = x()

print(a, b, c, d)

1 2 3 4

19、使用*运算符unpack函数参数

def test(x, y, z):

   print(x, y, z)

testDic = {'x':1, 'y':2, 'z':3}

testList = [10, 20, 30]

test(*testDic)

test(**testDic)

test(*testList)

z x y

1 2 3

10 20 30

20、用字典来存储表达式

stdcalc = {

   "sum": lambda x, y: x + y,

   "subtract": lambda x, y: x - y

}

print(stdcalc["sum"](9, 3))

print(stdcalc["subtract"](9, 3))

12

6

21、计算任何数的阶乘

import functools

result = (lambda k: functools.reduce(int.__mul__, range(1, k+1), 1))(3)

print(result)

6

22、找到列表中出现次数最多的数

test = [1, 2, 3, 4, 2, 2, 3, 1, 4, 4, 4, 4]

print(max(set(test), key=test.count))

4

23、重置递归限制

python限制递归次数到1000,可以用下面方法重置

import sys

x = 1200

print(sys.getrecursionlimit())

sys.setrecursionlimit(x)

print(sys.getrecursionlimit())

1000

1200

24、检查一个对象的内存使用

import sys

x = 1

print(sys.getsizeof(x))    # python3.5中一个32比特的整数占用28字节

28

25、使用slots减少内存开支

import sys

# 原始类

class FileSystem(object):

   def __init__(self, files, folders, devices):

       self.files = files

       self.folder = folders

       self.devices = devices

print(sys.getsizeof(FileSystem))

# 减少内存后

class FileSystem(object):

   __slots__ = ['files', 'folders', 'devices']

   def __init__(self, files, folders, devices):

       self.files = files

       self.folder = folders

       self.devices = devices

print(sys.getsizeof(FileSystem))

1016

888

26、用lambda 来模仿输出方法

import sys

lprint = lambda *args: sys.stdout.write(" ".join(map(str, args)))

lprint("python", "tips", 1000, 1001)

python tips 1000 1001

27、从两个相关序列构建一个字典

t1 = (1, 2, 3)

t2 = (10, 20, 30)

print(dict(zip(t1, t2)))

{1: 10, 2: 20, 3: 30}

28、搜索字符串的多个前后缀

print("http://localhost:8888/notebooks/Untitled6.ipynb".startswith(("http://", "https://")))

print("http://localhost:8888/notebooks/Untitled6.ipynb".endswith((".ipynb", ".py")))

True

True

29、不使用循环构造一个列表

import itertools

import numpy as np

test = [[-1, -2], [30, 40], [25, 35]]

print(list(itertools.chain.from_iterable(test)))

[-1, -2, 30, 40, 25, 35]

30、实现switch-case语句

def xswitch(x):

   return  xswitch._system_dict.get(x, None)

xswitch._system_dict = {"files":10, "folders":5, "devices":2}

print(xswitch("default"))

print(xswitch("devices"))

None

原文来自:30个Python常用小技巧,尊重自己,尊重每一个人;转发请注明来源!
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